Furu e Deen - Branches of Religion

Branches of Religion or Furu e Deen are 10 in Shia Islam.

1. Salat (Namaz)

namaz

Salāt (“prayer”, Arabic: صلاةṣalāh or gen: ṣalāt; pl. صلوات ṣalawāt) is the practice of ritualistic prayer in Islam as opposed to dua, which is the Arabic word for supplication. Its importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of Islam.

Salat is preceded by ritual ablution and usually performed five times a day. It consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah (pl. rakaʿāt) consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory (fard) rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats). Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.

 

2. Sawm (Roza)

Ramadan

Sawm (Arabic: صوم‎, plural: Siam) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating and drinking during daylight hours. The observance of sawm during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month.

 

3. Hajj

Hajj

Hajj is one of the basic principles of Islam; its performance is one of its essentials, and its non-performance is a grave sin. Denial of the obligatory nature of Hajj is blasphemy (kufr). Allah states in the Holy Qur’an, “.. and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, (upon) every one who is able to undertake the journey to it; and whoever disbelieves, surely Allah is Self-sufficient, above any need of the worlds”. (3/97).

Sheikh Kulayni has reported that Imam as-Sadiq (a.s.) has said, “Whoever dies without having performed obligatory pilgrimage when he was not prevented by lack of means, illness, or force, dies a Jew or a Christian”. Indeed, there are many hadiths (traditions) on pilgrimage being obligatory and on its importance, but the brevity of this work does not permit setting them all out.

In religion the performance of pilgrimage is obligatory on a person once only; it is known as ‘Hajjatul Islam’.

4. Zakat

zakat

Zakāt (Arabic: زكاة[zæˈkæːt], “that which purifies”) is the taxation of income and wealth of a Muslim. It is a form of obligatory alms giving, and the collected amount is paid to poor Muslims, to zakat collectors, to new converts to Islam, as income to its clergy, and others

 

5. Khums

Khums

In Islamic tradition, Khums (Arabic: خمسArabic pronunciation: [xums], literally ‘Fifth’) refers to the historically required religious obligation of Muslim army to pay one-fifth of spoils of war, booty collected from non-believers after a military campaign; this tax was paid to the Caliph or Sultan, representing the state of Islam.

Khums is a 20% tax that must be paid on all items regarded as ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة‎, booty seized with war). There are differing legal traditions within Islam about what constitutes ghanima, and thus how far-reaching khums should be. Khums included a 20% tax paid on business profit and minerals. Khums is different and separate from other Islamic taxes such as zakat and jizya.

 

6. Jihad

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Literally, jihad means `to strive’, `to struggle’ and implies use of force. This meaning has repeatedly been applied in the Holy Qur’an:

وَٱلَّذِينَ جَـٰهَدُواْ فِينَا لَنَہۡدِيَنَّہُمۡ سُبُلَنَا‌ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَمَعَ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ

And [as for] those who strive hard in Our [cause], We will most certainly guide them in Our ways; and God is indeed with the good‑doers. (29:69)

In its second usage, jihad denotes armed confrontation and war against the enemies of Islam, and sacrificing of one’s life and property in the cause of Allah. The Holy Qur’an says:

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَـٰهَدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِہِمۡ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ

Surely those who believed and migrated, and struggled. in Allah’s way with their property and their souls. (8:72)

 

7 & 8. Amar-Bil-Maroof wa Nahi-Anil-Munkir 

Amar-Bil-Maroof wa Nahi-Anil-Munkir

Enjoining good and forbidding wrong, (Arabic: al-amr bi ‘l-maʿruf wa ‘n-nahy ʿani ‘l-munkar) or promotion of virtue and prevention of vice (PVPV), is an Islamic doctrine mentioned in the Qur’an. It forms a central part of the Islamic doctrine for all Muslims. It is also explicitly referred to in the two Shi’a Ancillaries of the Faith, commanding what is just and forbidding what is evil.

 

9 & 10. Tawalla wa Tabarra 

Tawalla

Tawalla (to love) and Tabarra (to express aloofness). That is we love some and hate some. We should love the friends of Allah, those who desire truth, righteous people and supporters of truth and justice and we should hate the evildoers, oppressors, lovers of enjoyment and enemies of Allah, His Prophet and humanity.

Why shouldn’t we love all of them? Why shouldn’t we behave nicely with all of them? Can we forgo the method of living with amity in the present age? However, those who are in favor of having friendly relations with all must be asked:

In the world which has oppressors and oppressed, the unjust and the victims of injustice, the tyrants and the weak, the equitable and the usurpers, the pure and the dirty; shall we love all of them? Shall we remain pleased with all of them? Shall we help all of them? Can any human logic permit us to do so? Can the living conscience permit this mixing up?

These two principles are included in the basic principles of Islam so that the followers of truth, justice, freedom, purity and goodness can create unity among their ranks and that the impure, oppressive, and the unjust ones are boycotted and in way they are socially and morally subjugated by the unity of the good people.

 

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